- Mangroves are found in three substantial areas: at the southern tip the Dungonab Peninsula, at the southern end of Mukkawar Island and on the mainland coast at Mersa Inkefal.
- Mangrove growths are generally less common and sparse compared to the coastal area south of Port Sudan to Agig.
- Terrestrial vegetation consists mainly of halophytes, bushes such as Suaeda sp. and Zygophyllum sp. that grow in sandy areas and sabkhas above the high water mark. Towards the plains, the vegetation is dominated by Acacia tortilis desert scrub. North of Port Sudan the lower reaches of khor Arbaat is densely covered with the introduced Prosopis sp.
- Fin and shell-fisheries are the main activities in the coastal villages of Halaib, Dungonab and Mohammed Qol.
- Oyster culture has been traditionally practiced for many years in Dungonab and Mohammed Qol and represents a major source of income for local inhabitants. Although the mass discharge of effluent and nutrients could have serious environmental impacts on mangroves and fringing reefs.
Source: PERSGA, 2004.